Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Soursop (Annona muricata) from Kluang, Peninsular Malaysia


  • Chee Kong Yap
  • Azlini Razali
  • Rosimah Nulit
  • Shih Hao Tony Peng
  • Chee Wah Yap
  • Hideo Okamura
  • Wan Hee Cheng
  • Muhammad Saleem
  • Moslem Sharifinia


soursop, heavy metals, ecological risk, health risks


The present study studied the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn in the pulps, peels and seeds of soursop (Annona muricata) collected from Kluang (Johore, Peninsular Malaysia) and to estimate the human health risk of heavy metals in the edible soursop. It was found that the levels of Cu, Fe and Zn found in the pulps, peels and seeds of soursop were relatively low. Overall, the levels of Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the unripe pulps are significantly (P< 0.05) higher (except for Ni) than those in the ripe pulps. However, Fe level in the ripe pulp is significantly higher (P< 0.05) than that in the unripe pulp. The EF and Igeo for Pb indicated ‘moderate enrichment’ and ‘unpolluted to moderately polluted’, respectively. The target hazard quotient (THQ) values are all below 1.0 for Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn. This indicates that there are no non-carcinogenic risks of the five metals if the soursop pulps are to be eaten. We still recommend regular monitoring and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in the soursop.